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Conspiracy delusion and conspiracy theory

Conspiracy delusion and conspiracy theory



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Dr. Utz Anhalt: Ufo believers and schizophrenics - the conspiracy delusion

Conspiracy myths are particularly prevalent in social crises, when people suffer from fears and seek guilty people to find an outlet for these fears.

Assuming conspiracies is as much a part of our evolutionary heritage as it is of human culture: people look for and humanize explanations for what is happening in the environment - our memories constantly construct meaningful connections between events that only make sense subjectively.

As soon as people form groups, design symbols, develop cultures and perform rituals, they automatically tinker outside and inside, environment and unconscious drives into a system in which to orient themselves.

Wild thinking

This "wild thinking" has the advantage that the non-human nature, the elements fire, water, earth and air, animals, plants and stones with community, society and human individual are thought in one unit. This enables us to move around the world.

Conspiracies that “only” exist in myths, but not in the world, have probably shaped the memory of peoples from our beginnings. The evil Ahriman, who conspired against good Ahuramazda in ancient Persia, was included in the devil's conspiracy against God in Christianity and in that of the Scheitans against Allah in Islam.

Almost all myths of creation know dark powers that conspired against the forces of light, because humans are exposed to nature, both beneficial and destructive events.

We call the ability of people to animate nature, animism: In trees, rivers and mountains, in animals and plants, beings live in this imagination who think, feel and act like people.

Small children automatically think in such stories full of living beings; it is only at the age of four or five that they begin to separate the external environment from the inner soul.

Ground zero

However, conspiracy myths are not only spreading among traditional cultures and dualistic religions, but are also booming in postmodernity.

For example, since the attack on the World Trade Center, countless myths have circulated that non-Islamist terrorists carried out the attack. The version according to which the CIA and Israel committed the crime is particularly widespread in Arab countries.

The line between investigative journalism, which reveals "flase flag" operations and conspiracy delusion is easy to draw: critical journalists research secret facts and develop a mosaic from them. Conspiracy fans know from the start who is behind it and are not impressed by facts, because in this logic they are also invented by the conspirators.

The 20th century was filled with conspiracy myths. One of the oldest is the "Jewish world conspiracy", a murderous fantasy on the floor of which the Nazis built Auschwitz, and which today, usually with the term "Zionists" instead of "Jews", circulates both in Islamic countries and in Europe.

The AIDS virus grown in the laboratory, the moon landing that supposedly did not take place, rumors about the mastermind behind the death of Uwe Barschel, vaccines that poison people so that the pharmaceutical industry could earn money, supposedly new knowledge about the attack on John F. Kennedy, a fantasized attack on the "Titanic" or a silent UFO landing - these are just a few of the fables in contemporary history.

The internet turkey

Conspiracy theorists, so-called turkeys, are networking today via the Internet. The journalist Andreas Hallaschka researched in the relevant forums and wrote: “I now found out on Facebook that my friends' friends were convinced that dangerous toxins lay down as white stripes in the sky, reptile-like aliens in human form controlled us, in fact none at all Federal Republic, but the III. Reich continued to exist and the “FED”, the American central bank system, had been controlling world affairs for more than 100 years, was responsible for all wars and, like almost all other central banks in the world, was ultimately ruled by the Rothschild family and a few others. ”

The critics of this imagination belong in the paranoid logic itself to the conspiracy, are paid either by the "mainstream media", NATO or the Mossad, whereby the "Truther" combine the ingredients of their fantasies differently. The most established of all conspiracy theories, namely that of the "Jewish world conspiracy" is of course also available in various variants, as "Zionists", "Mossad" or "Israel lobby".

Since all established media are said to be silent about the truth, only “alternative media” are considered credible. These are the Compact Magazine, "Infokrieger", Ken FM, Kopp Verlag, Nuoviso TV, Alpenparlament, Klagemauer TV, News 23, all magazines in which conspiracy fantasy, right-wing eroticism and revision of history shake hands.

Holocaust deniers such as Nazi lawyer Sylvia Stolz meet fear-impaired people who consider aircraft contrails to be toxic chemtrails, and gold trader Andreas Popp, who represents the interest theory of the Nazi economist Feder, joins paranoid people who think AIDS is a CIA product.

The conspiracy mentality

Psychologists speak of confabulation, that is, of inventing fables in order to explain a contradicting reality as logical in itself.

The fictitious cause behind an event gives security. Today's conspiracy theorists ask about the "Cui Bono", who benefits from it, and conclude that stockbrokers, "Zionists" or the CIA carried out the attack on the WTC.

They do no differently than the witch-hunters of the early modern period. Crop slumps, cattle diseases, every suffering and inexplicable death could be explained by the work of witches in covenant with the devil. On the burned bodies of the people burned as witches, the psyche of the murderers calmed down in the face of a variety of misfortune, behind which there was no personal perpetrator.

Pathology and conspiracy

On December 26, 1980, a security guard found Richard Trenton Chase lying in his bed in the cell aisle. Chase wasn't breathing. The autopsy revealed that the serial killer known as the "Vampire of Sacramento" committed suicide with an overdose of antidepressant medication.

Chase killed dogs, cats and rabbits when he was young, mixed cocktails from their blood and drank them. He later murdered people and also drank their blood. He believed that a conspiracy from the American mafia, Nazis who had survived the war and extraterrestrials would dry people's blood, and he needed fresh blood to fight those conspirators.

A reporter wrote about him shortly before Chase committed suicide: "Sunken, glassy eyes, sagging skin that hangs from his emaciated bones, the encounter with the murderer is a shock, his eyes are reminiscent of those of the" Great White Shark "in the film of the same name. They have hardly anything human, no pupil, only black dots. He doesn't look at people, but looks through them as if people weren't part of his world. ”

The serial killer is a prime example of how conspiracy fantasy combined with a mental disorder can have dangerous consequences.

The conspiracy novel

Any good novelist, especially if he is writing psychological thrillers or political thrillers, could become a guru in conspiracy milieus if he leaves his literary honesty. It is no coincidence that the founder of Scientology previously wrote science fiction novels.

A conspiracy, like the novel, needs people to act. In the literature, this stylistic device is necessary to make complex events understandable through personal dramas; People imagine stories, and the unconscious is constantly developing such stories to visualize the abstract.

But what is an art for the novelist, namely narratively relining complex realities, falsifies reality for the conspiracy theorist. It reduces incoherent facts to a clear separation of good and evil. Events become the guilt of certain people: secret societies, Freemasons, Muslims, demons or the mafia.

Reality becomes theater, and that has fatal consequences if someone implements this theater politically. Media play this theater because the literary means also lure the readership in newspapers.

The Iraq war against Saddam Hussein was an example of such a reduction of political problems to people: Any differentiated analysis would have shown that the overthrow of the dictator could in no way be followed by a democracy based on the West.

Literature tells conflicts based on characters; and this is how the political assassin / terrorist acts: the perpetrator and the victim meet in a unit of time and space. The novel serves the need for "heroes" whose actions determine what happens: The "silent constraint of circumstances" has little space in the unconscious. Our ancestors, who saw the wrath of a god in lightning, hardly differed from today's conspiracy theories.

However, as in the novel, the tension of chance is fascinating: if Stauffenberg's bomb had exploded next to Hitler, how would the story have gone? If heir to the throne Ferdinand had stopped his journey after the first assassin had been arrested, the First World War would have broken out later - or maybe not at all?

The proximity of the assassination to the narrative even leads to fantasizing "mysterious" deaths to the assassination. The legend changed the end of Hun Attila, for example, to the murder of his beloved Hildlika. In fact, he died of a hemorrhage.

Murdering the king to proclaim himself king, that is, the attack within the system that often works. However, the assassin who wants to change the system usually fails. When it comes to the assassination, the wish is the father of the act; However, social changes are viscous and political structures cannot be eliminated with sensational files.

Objectively, the assassins hardly influenced politics: the murder of Franz Ferdinand did not cause World War I; the assassination attempt on Lincoln did not reintroduce slavery, and the murder of Gandhi did not destroy Indian democracy.

The more spectacular the deed and the more obvious the motive, the greater the speculation: an anarchist murdered "Sissi", Elisabeth of Austria, in 1898, and the former soldier Lee Harvey Oswald, 1863, John F. Kennedy; the communist Marinus van der Lubbe set fire to the Berlin Reichstag in 1933. Even if such attacks have been clarified in court, and the perpetrator is believed to have acted on his own, the fantasies are rife with "secret masterminds":

Over 2,000 books have been written about the murder of John F. Kennedy, which the Mafia, the KGB and the right wing suspect as conspirators without providing reliable facts.

Hermann Göring rushed against a "communist conspiracy" after the Reichstag fire, and the Nazis found the right occasion to enforce the Enabling Act and thus abolish the Weimar constitution; the communist Dimitroff, on the other hand, saw the fire staged by the Nazis.

The conspiracy theory assumes that the culprit for an event is people or groups to whom it believes that it can do all the evil anyway. If they find evidence of their "devilry", they feel confirmed. If the receipt is missing, she also confirms this; then the conspirators hide the evidence.

For example, if a woman is considered a witch in the early modern period in Europe or today in parts of Africa, India or New Guinea, everything serves as evidence of her "crimes". Burns with her light, she reads her magic books, when the light is out, she pursues her misdeeds. If the torturers found a special birthmark, the devil had kissed them here; If the sign was missing, the devil put her protective hands over her by camouflaging her.

The conspiracy of religion

Like religions, the theses about the conspiracy are universal, and especially Islam and Christianity bathed themselves in such conspiracies - in the end, it was always the devil who turned against God. Whether epilepsy, "lumbago" or symptoms that we now recognize as mental disorders - illnesses were as much the work of the devil as the machinations of the respective political opponent.

Gabriele Amorth, exorcist of the diocese of Rome, drives out the devils and explains the obsession: “Satan is a real, personal spirit. He is one of the thousands of angels created by God. Like all angels, the devil was once happy and good, but then succumbed to temptation. It is certain that Satan and his followers turned into demons at their own fault because they did not want to serve Christ. The demons are personal beings because they have freedom and will. They are spiritual beings, pure spirits, because they have no soul and no body like humans. That's why they sometimes use people's bodies. ”

The purgatory, the cleaning by fire, served to drive the demons out of the body. Who shouted, what was not the woman who burned at the stake, but the devil who rose from her body.

First, there are real conspiracies among people. Colleagues sat down in collusion to bully an unloved employee, and critical journalists exposed Watergate as well as the CIA's murder of Lumumba.

However, just as the devout Christian sees everything that happens on earth as an expression of the cosmic drama between God and the Devil, political corruption, the New York Mafia, or the NSA affair are only visible hotspots of an invisible network for conspiracy mythologists to whom the conspirators pull their strings everywhere.

This self-sufficient worldview integrates conflicting opinions without problems. So the same conspiracy theorists were convinced that the CIA killed Osama Bin Laden as that he was still alive today.

The conspiracy theory is not concerned with the question of what really happened, as in investigative journalism, but that the conspirators are not telling the truth.

This makes conspiracy theories not only fact-resistant, but even counter-factual. If the investigation of alleged UFOs over New Mexico reveals that it was a maneuver by the US Army, the US authorities make the evidence disappear.

Missing information?

Do conspiracy theories arise from a lack of knowledge, on the basis of which those affected put together their own explanations? There are some arguments for it. This is how young children think when it rains that a man is sitting in the sky with a watering can.

Historians speak of the "church tower view" to identify communities whose perception is limited to the surroundings of their village and to embed events in the experiences from this narrow horizon.

But such “hillbillies” rarely design conspiracy models with universal validity, and conspiracy theorists like Andreas Popp fanatically collect “counter-information” that support their constructs.

But, and there they are like the believers of the major religions, they do not accept arguments that refute their models. That distinguishes them from science, at least from what science should be.

Honest scientists revise their hypotheses, albeit reluctantly and often only after enormous counter pressure if they are recognized as wrong with better arguments.

Conspiracy theorists, on the other hand, construct their own “truth”, which is confirmed again and again in their sectarian communities - whoever criticizes them is considered an enemy.

Even more: the more established scientists with facts break up the constructs, the more the conspiracy theorist sees himself as a rebel who proclaims the "secret truth".

Even if the conspiracy mentality becomes pathological, and if her preacher ends up in psychiatry, the only reason that his fans will stylize him as a martyr is the decisive evidence that he uncovered the conspiracy.

Tunnel vision, the ignoring of contradicting details, the inability to engage in constructive dialogue with people who take a different view, and the loss of critical thinking - all these characteristics characterize conspiracy theorists.

Critical thinking in the scientific sense means above all doubts, but also curiosity, openness to the result and strict evidence. This also applies to serious journalism, with the difference that the time for research is limited here and the journalist has to fall back on the findings of experts.

In this sense, conspiracy thinking is dirty thinking. The hypothesis of a conspiracy itself can be fair, and investigating such a suspicion even belongs to the craft of journalists, criminal police, prosecutors, or historians.

For example, thanks to critical historiography, we now know that King Richard III of England was not the monster he went down in history with at Shakespeare, but a victim of the Tudor family, who illegitimately seized the throne and murdered Richard when tyrant murder represented.

Conspiracy ideologies differ from such rational research, which everyone can check by making their stereotypes unassailable. In the case of hypotheses, science applies “Ockham's razor”, according to which the most probable aspects are first considered for a hypothesis in order to verify it.

In short, if my car breaks down and I don't have gasoline in the tank, the hypothesis is that the car will stop because the gasoline is missing and not that extraterrestrials will sabotage the car with invisible laser beams.

Conspiracy ideologies not only disregard this plausibility, but represent rational explanations as a cover-up of the conspirators.

Search for meaning

But it is not the simple-minded who go into destructive cults, but just as intelligent as sensitive people who have often already passed various stages of self-discovery. Someone has to ask the question why political and social evils are so that they can be sensitive to the wrong answers.

Esoteric authors like Jo Conrad offer the seekers of meaning one, according to Rainer Fromm "bizarre mix of right-wing radical conspiracy theories, black and white stereotypes and non-verifiable conjectures" and rumored about "powers that control our planet" that would be there: "Illuminati, Bilderberger, Vatican, Zionists, CIA, Rothschilds etc. "These powers weakened the people to establish world domination.

Fundamentally wrong, but clearly structured, worldviews like Conrad's offer a coordinate system in a confusing mass of information.

The supposedly secret event, which is beyond human influence, promises freedom from any responsibility.

Anyone who interprets terror and disease as the work of conspirators as well as karmic law no longer has to get involved. It is enough to stand on the side of the "knowing".

The logic of distrust

Distrust supporters of conspiracy theories. They distrust all media, except those of their peer group, and they distrust all politicians, except those who spread their conspiracy theses. However, they are not suspicious in the sense of skepticism that distinguishes honest scientists, but they distrust everything outside of their own beliefs - but they follow this completely uncritically.

You also agree with contradicting models of other conspiracy theorists if they only agree that “the powerful” lie. The uncertainty makes everything that deviates from the dominant discourse appear credible, even if the “alternative” models are mutually exclusive.

The believers first suggest an omnipotence of the conspirators who have controlled events on earth since time immemorial and at the same time keep them secret, secondly they see themselves as those who, for whatever reason, see through these machinations. The experience of being betrayed at work, with authorities and in everyday life becomes a projection that always applies everywhere. Developments in society and even in nature are always the result of conscious decisions by the conspirators.

Conspiracy fans generally believe in various “alternative models”: those who think the moon landing is a fake, for example, also believe that extraterrestrials built the pyramids or “Zionists” staged the French Revolution.

A person suffering from a diagnosed anxiety disorder, for example, believed in "fine substance poisoning" from "cell phone smog" as well as in demons who penetrate the city through gates and contaminate the "energetic atmosphere" as well as doctors who thought it was "psychological." declared sick to suppress his knowledge. " When he was studying the Marxian method of historical materialism during his studies, he constructed models of how this “demonic energy” was shown in social movements.

He was traumatized by a stay at home in his youth and was in psychotherapy for many years. But even the diagnosis of an anxiety disorder that he accepted did not in the least interfere with his belief. Instead, he said, "I know it's true, even if a million people say the opposite."

He lived on Hartz IV, and when an acquaintance cut him off with the words: "You are paranoid," he countered: "You don't want to have anything to do with Hartz IV recipients."

Paranoia and schizophrenia?

The American historian Richard Hofstaedter recognized conspiracy fantasies in 1964 as paranoid explanations, in whose apocalyptic imagination the world was divided into absolutely good and absolutely bad. Disasters served as evidence of how dangerous the conspirators were.

The conspiracy fantasy coincides with religious milieus in that a group shares the constructs and at the same time immunizes itself against “uninitiated”. The "unbeliever" in Christianity or Islam becomes "sleep sheep" or "system troll" postmodern.

However, paranoia coincides with psychiatric symptoms, particularly paranoid schizophrenia. So schizophrenics believe they are being followed by invisible forces.

A Bosnian woman, for example, probably got her schizophrenic thrust while studying cultural studies, and since then they have been haunting dark magical powers that only she can recognize.

She yells on the street against the "powers" that "nest in her body" - sometimes it is zombies sent by black magicians, sometimes vampires, sometimes Serbian priests are behind the invisible attack.

At the same time, she carries the nimbus of the "enlightened" in front of her, because her fellow human beings are not "woken up" because they neither see nor feel the invisible powers. When passers-by react confused because she eats choking voices in public or roars: "You are trying to rape me again, you Serbian warlock", this only proves how right she is.

She explains her diagnosis as mentally ill by saying that she found that Angela Merkel was the tool of a group of ancient Egyptian magicians who controlled the New World Order. Your individual delusion is based on stereotypes that circulate on the Internet and that are spread by the participants in public events such as “Peace Winter” or the “Vigils for Peace” 2014.

Where an individual mental disorder ends and mass psychosis begins can only be clarified in individual cases.

Theories of conspiracy are also models in which tangible “powerful” channels their own failures. But they are not critical because of this.

On the contrary: the flaws of an ideology and the structures of rule are not at the center of criticism, because that would enable concrete action, against which conspiracy theory resists in its belief system, but the "conspirators" are almost always groups that are historically under the Resentment of the majority suffered: Jews, Roma and Sinti or migrants.

What does science say?

According to historian Dieter Groh, the conspiracy theory gives the answer to why. Why is this happening to me? Why do I get cancer even though I've always lived healthy? The understandable mistake is to see the course of the historical and biographical events as meaningful and predictable, which is not.

Historical processes only appear in retrospect as a result of certain actions, as do personal developments: whether a company is successful or not depends heavily on chance. There are real political and historical conspiracies, but the respective "conspirators" are neither in solidarity with one another nor do they work beyond space and time. There were conspirators around Brutus, but when Augustus became emperor, the political landscape looked very different.

The term conspiracy myths used by the English historian Geoffrey T. Cubitt fits better than conspiracy theory because it is a story that is believed to be true, in which conspiracies effectively determine history.

The actors' motives thus gain power over the actual processes of the material world, and this world is divided into the evil conspirators and their victims. At the same time, these myths are occult because the visible "appearance" of the world hides a "truth below the surface".

Finally, for the political scientist Michael Barkun, the "conspiracist worldview" is characterized by the fact that he recognizes no coincidences. World affairs go back to the intentions of the conspirators - Barkun's definition would also apply to religious world designs.

Systemic conspiracy theories imply that the conspiratorial group plans to rule the world. Conspirators are groups that serve as enemy images - for anti-Semites, anti-Gypsyists, anti-Catholics etc.

Conspiracy theorists not only reduce complexity, they also negate the dynamics of situations, and they create social communities by supposedly explaining borderline situations. They are not impartial, but are directed against an enemy group.

Without an enemy, the myth doesn't work. Religion critic Michael Schmidt-Salomon consequently said about one of the archetypes of the conspiracy myth: "Christianity without the devil would be like a football game without an opposing team."

Mythical explanations lack the concrete framework, the unintentional consequences of actions, the role of the respective institutions, conflicting interests and unpredictable events. The "conspirators" commit a perfect crime - and that for thousands of years.

Conspiracy ideology thus reduces cognitive dissonance and thus dampens stress experiences. The answer to the why, which is impossible in realitas, makes sense in psychological crises, and this explains why conspiracy fabulous events are particularly popular with people who suffer psychologically.

The classics are drug addicts who find a “cure” in esoteric circles and become as dependent on the sect as before on the substance. Depressive life experiences get a logic that doesn't really exist; Diseases take on a “karmic sense”.

Because the conspiracy ideology is based on a failed search for meaning, it always looks for new “evidence” when it is de facto refuted. Instead of the situation, it is about the motive of the "conspirators".

For example, historian Steve Clarke writes that conspiracy ideologists still believe in a conspiracy by the American authorities to cover up the fact that a UFO crashed in Roswell in 1947 instead of realizing that there was no UFO at all.

Conspiracy myths also make a mistake that makes them scientifically unacceptable: They retrospectively declare events to be intentionally controlled, although no historian can show such a cause of a historical process. Historical research cannot rule out all other factors in the experiment that preceded the event.

Conspiracy fears of the mentally ill

Conspiracy fears are not a mental illness. Distrusting the powerful without knowing scientific methods or working in a profession where research is part of everyday craft is not a mental disorder.

But such fears can also go hand in hand with mental disorders, and conspiracy ideologies can drive latent psychosis in mentally unstable people. Borderline syndrome, paranoid schizophrenia, bipolarity and various anxiety disorders are psychological abnormalities, the symptoms of which include conspiracy delusion.

In schizophrenia, the conspiracy myth goes hand in hand with delusion of persecution. Die Verschwörungsangst von Schizophrenen knüpft zwar an verbreitete Mythen ebenso an wie an den Alltagsaberglauben, geht aber weit darüber hinaus.

Auch Menschen, die an Horoskope glauben oder „die da oben“ für die Auswirkungen des Kapitalismus verantwortlich machen, erscheinen Schizophrene, die glauben, dass jemand in ihre Wohnung einbricht, wenn sie ihre EC-Karte verlieren, oder den Nachbarn für einen Dämon halten, als verrückt.

Solche pathologischen Symptome können in gesellschaftlichen Krisen jedoch Anhänger gewinnen. So diagnostizierten Psychologen bei dem Anthroposophen Rudolf Steiner post mortem eine schizophrene Erkrankung – und seine obskuren Fantasien von Planeten, die Wurzelrassen steuern, könnten direkt aus einem Lehrbuch über Paranoia stammen. Stattdessen folgten weltweit hundert tausende seiner Lehre.

Die Verbindung von Schizophrenie und Politik ist ein weites Feld. Zum einen kommen paranoid Schizophrene tatsächlich auf die Idee, gegen die Mächtigen vorzugehen, und der vom Verfolgungswahn geplagte sieht sich dann tatsächlich verfolgt – sei es, dass er in einem zivilisierten Land in der Psychiatrie landet oder in einem autoritären System in einem Kerkerloch.

Zum anderen gab es tatsächlich Mächtige, denen sich, mit Vorbehalt, eine paranoide Weltsicht diagnostizieren lässt. Erich Fromm zum Beispiel sah in Stalin, der alle Menschen in seiner Nähe ermorden ließ, als Prototypen eines Paranoikers.

Die Verschwörungsangst gehört zum Krankheitsbild der paranoiden Schizophrenie. Der Betroffene isoliert sich von seinem sozialen Umfeld, sein Unbewusstes dringt in den Alltag ein, und er ist unfähig, das eine von dem anderen zu trennen.

Dieses Traumerlebnis ungefiltert in der Außenwelt zu erleben, trifft auch auf Verschwörungsmythen zu, die zwischen empirischer Beweisführung und literarischer Fiktion nicht unterscheiden. So sah ein unter einer Angststörung Leidender in den Horrorromanen von Dean Koontz eine exakte Beschreibung der Wirklichkeit – ganz im Gegensatz zu Koontz selbst, der mit den Ängsten der Menschen spielt.

Weil der Schizophrene seine Innenwelt nicht von der Außenwelt trennen kann, scheint alles einen geheimen Sinn zu haben, so wie psychisch Stabilen ein nächtlicher Traum symbolische Hinweise auf drängende Probleme gibt.

Schizophrene sehen diese Vermischung von Unbewusstem und äußerer Realität oft als Auserwähltsein, wenn sie religiös sind, erkennen sie häufig, dass „Gott ihnen Zeichen gibt“.

Psychotiker schließlich sehen sich der Außenwelt hilflos ausgeliefert, auf die Straße zu gehen, macht ihnen Angst. Eine krakenartige Verschwörung, die ihre Arme überall hinein steckt, gibt dieser Angst ein Gesicht.

Wer unter Angststörungen leidet und sich von dunklen Mächten verfolgt sieht, dem kann eine Psychotherapie helfen, viel wichtiger ist aber ein soziales Umfeld, in dem er Vertrauen fasst. Verschwörungsmythen wuchern dort, wo die sozialen Bindungen zerbrechen und sich Menschen einer abstrakten Gewalt gegenüber stehen sehen – und sich dabei ebenso einsam wie hilflos fühlen.

Die Bindung an eine Verschwörungsgurus mit ihren vermeintlichen Antworten auf alle Probleme ist ein fehl geleiteter Versuch reale Geborgenheit in belastbaren Beziehungen zu finden.

Gegen den Wahn selbst hilft nur Aufklärung – die gilt nicht den Verkündern der „Heilslehre“, sondern einer Öffentlichkeit, die für kritisches Denken noch empfänglich ist. (Dr. Utz Anhalt)

Literature:

Dr Rainer Fromm: Rechtsradikalismus in der Esoterik. Verschwörungswahn zwischen grauen Männern, alten Ufos und der schwarzen Sonne

Author and source information

This text corresponds to the specifications of the medical literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical doctors.

Swell:

  • Rainer Fromm, "Rechtsradikalismus in der Esoterik: Verschwörungswahn zwischen grauen Männern, alten Ufos und der schwarzen Sonne", Elterninitiative zur Hilfe gegen seelische Abhängigkeit und religiösen Extremismus e.V, 2014, sektenwatch.de
  • Christian C. Walther; Mathias Bröckers: 11.9. - zehn Jahre danach: Der Einsturz eines Lügengebäudes, Westend, 2011
  • Monica T. Whitty; Adam Joinson: Truth, Lies and Trust on the Internet, Routledge, 2008
  • Michael Butter: »Nichts ist, wie es scheint«: Über Verschwörungstheorien, Suhrkamp Verlag, 2018
  • Walter Laqueur, Putinismus: Wohin treibt Russland?, Ullstein, 2015
  • Thomas Hausmanninger , Verschwörung und Religion, Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 2013


Video: Why You Can Never Argue with Conspiracy Theorists. Argument Clinic. WIRED (August 2022).